Details

    • Author:
      Doug Lea
    • JEP Type:
      Feature
    • Exposure:
      Open
    • Subcomponent:
    • Scope:
      SE
    • JSR:
      TBD
    • Discussion:
      core dash libs dash dev at openjdk dot java dot net
    • Effort:
      M
    • Duration:
      L
    • Alert Status:
       Green
    • Alert Reason:
      All major changes pushed to hs-comp
    • JEP Number:
      193

      Description

      Summary

      Define a standard means to invoke the equivalents of java.util.concurrent.atomic and sun.misc.Unsafe operations upon object fields and array elements.

      Define a standard set of fence operations for fine-grained control of memory ordering (sun.misc.Unsafe provides a non-standard set of fence operations).

      Define a standard reachability fence operation ensuring a referenced object remains strongly reachable.

      Goals

      The following are required goals:

      • Safety. It must not be possible to place the Java Virtual Machine in a corrupt memory state. For example, a field of an object can only be updated with instances that are castable to the field type, or an array element can only be accessed within an array if the array index is within the array bounds.

      • Integrity. Access to a field of an object follows the same access rules as with getfield and putfield byte codes in addition to the constraint that a final field of an object cannot be updated. (Note: such safety and integrity rules also apply to MethodHandles giving read or write access to a field.)

      • Performance. The performance characteristics must be the same as or similar to equivalent sun.misc.Unsafe operations (specifically, generated assembler code should be almost identical modulo certain safety checks that cannot be folded away).

      • Usability. The API must be better than the sun.misc.Unsafe API.

      It is desirable, but not required, that the API be as good as the java.util.concurrent.atomic API.

      Motivation

      As concurrent and parallel programming in Java continue to expand, programmers are increasingly frustrated by not being able to use Java constructs to arrange atomic or ordered operations on the fields of individual classes; for example, atomically incrementing a count field. Until now the only ways to achieve these effects were to use a stand-alone AtomicInteger (adding both space overhead and additional concurrency issues to manage indirection) or, in some situations, to use atomic FieldUpdaters (often encountering more overhead than the operation itself), or to use the unsafe (and unportable and unsupported) sun.misc.Unsafe API for JVM intrinsics. Intrinsics are faster, so they have become widely used, to the detriment of safety and portability.

      Without this JEP, these problems are expected to become worse as atomic APIs expand to cover additional access-consistency policies (aligned with the recent C++11 memory model) as part of Java Memory Model revisions.

      Description

      A variable handle is a typed reference to a variable, which supports read and write access to the variable under a variety of access modes. Supported variable kinds include instance fields, static fields and array elements. Other variable kinds are being considered and may be supported such as array views, viewing a byte or char array as a long array, and locations in off-heap regions described by ByteBuffers.

      Variable handles require library enhancements, JVM enhancements, and compiler support. Additionally, it requires minor updates to the Java Language Specification and the Java Virtual Machine Specification. Minor language enhancements, that enhance compile-time type checking and complement existing syntax, are also considered.

      The resulting specifications are expected to be extensible in natural ways to additional primitive-like value types or additional array-like types, if they are ever added to Java. This is not, however, a general-purpose transaction mechanism for controlling accesses and updates to multiple variables. Alternative forms for expressing and implementing such constructs may be explored in the course of this JEP, and may be the subject of further JEPs.

      Variable handles are modelled by a single abstract class, java.lang.invoke.VarHandle, where each variable access mode is represented by a signature-polymorphic method:

      abstract class VarHandle {
          // Load
      
          /**
           * Returns the value, with memory semantics of reading a
           * non-volatile variable.
           *
           * @return the value
           */
          public final native
          @MethodHandle.PolymorphicSignature
          Object get(Object... args);
      
          /**
           * Returns the value, with memory semantics of reading a volatile
           * variable.
           *
           */
          public final native
          @MethodHandle.PolymorphicSignature
          Object getVolatile(Object... args);
      
          /**
           * Returns the value, and ensures that subsequent loads and stores
           * are not reordered before this access.
           *
           * @apiNote Ignoring the many semantic differences from C and
           * C++, this method has memory ordering effects compatible with
           * memory_order_acquire ordering.
           *
           */
          public final native
          @MethodHandle.PolymorphicSignature
          Object getAcquire(Object... args);
      
          /**
           * Returns the value, accessed in program order, but with no
           * assurance of memory ordering effects with respect to other
           * threads.
           *
           * @return the value
           */
          public final native
          @MethodHandle.PolymorphicSignature
          Object getOpaque(Object... args);
      
          // Store
      
          /**
           * Sets the value, with memory semantics of setting a
           * non-volatile, non-final variable.
           *
           */
          public final native
          @MethodHandle.PolymorphicSignature
          void set(Object... args);
      
          /**
           * Sets the value, with memory semantics of setting a volatile
           * variable.
           *
           * @apiNote Ignoring the many semantic differences from C and
           * C++, this method has memory ordering effects compatible with
           * memory_order_seq_cst.
           *
           */
          public final native
          @MethodHandle.PolymorphicSignature
          void setVolatile(Object... args);
      
          /**
           * Sets the value, and ensures that prior loads and stores are not
           * reordered after this access.
           *
           * @apiNote Ignoring the many semantic differences from C and
           * C++, this method has memory ordering effects compatible with
           * memory_order_release ordering.
           *
           */
          public final native
          @MethodHandle.PolymorphicSignature
          void setRelease(Object... args);
      
          /**
           * Sets the value, in program order, but with no assurance of
           * memory ordering effects with respect to other threads.
           *
           */
          public final native
          @MethodHandle.PolymorphicSignature
          void setOpaque(Object... args);
      
          // CAS
      
          /**
           * Atomically sets the value to the given updated value with the
           * memory semantics of setVolatile if the current value {@code ==}
           * the expected value, as accessed with the memory semantics of
           * getVolatile.
           *
           */
          public final native
          @MethodHandle.PolymorphicSignature
          boolean compareAndSet(Object... args);
      
          // Value-returning compare and exchange
      
          /**
           * Atomically sets the value to the given updated value with the
           * memory semantics of setVolatile if the current value {@code ==}
           * the expected value, as accessed with the memory semantics of
           * getVolatile.
           *
           */
          public final native
          @MethodHandle.PolymorphicSignature
          Object compareAndExchangeVolatile(Object... args);
      
          /**
           * Atomically sets the value to the given updated value with the
           * memory semantics of setting a non-volatile variable if the
           * current value {@code ==} the expected value, as accessed with
           * the memory semantics of getAcquire.
           *
           */
          public final native
          @MethodHandle.PolymorphicSignature
          Object compareAndExchangeAcquire(Object... args);
      
          /**
           * Atomically sets the value to the given updated value with the
           * memory semantics of setRelease if the current value {@code ==}
           * the expected value, as accessed with the memory semantics of
           * reading a non-volatile variable.
           *
           */
          public final native
          @MethodHandle.PolymorphicSignature
          Object compareAndExchangeRelease(Object... args);
      
          // Weak (spurious failures allowed) 
      
          /**
           * Possibly atomically sets the value to the given updated value
           * with the semantics of setting a non-volatile variable if the
           * current value {@code ==} the expected value, as accessed with
           * the memory semantics of reading a non-volatile variable.  This
           * operation may fail spuriously (typically, due to memory
           * contention) even if the current value does match the expected
           * value.
           * 
           */
          public final native
          @MethodHandle.PolymorphicSignature
          boolean weakCompareAndSet(Object... args);
      
          /**
           * Possibly atomically sets the value to the given updated value
           * with the memory semantics of setting a non-volatile variable if
           * the current value {@code ==} the expected value, as as accessed
           * with the memory semantics of getAcquire.  This operation may
           * fail spuriously (typically, due to memory contention) even if
           * the current value does match the expected value.
           * 
           */
          public final native
          @MethodHandle.PolymorphicSignature
          boolean weakCompareAndSetAcquire(Object... args);
      
          /**
           * Possibly atomically sets the value to the given updated value
           * with the memory semantics of setRelease if the current value
           * {@code ==} the expected value, as as accessed with the memory
           * semantics of reading a non-volatile variable.  This operation
           * may fail spuriously (typically, due to memory contention) even
           * if the current value does match the expected value.
           * 
           */
          public final native
          @MethodHandle.PolymorphicSignature
          boolean weakCompareAndSetRelease(Object... args);
      
          // special RMW
      
          /**
           * Atomically sets to the given value with the memory semantics of
           * setVolatile and returns the previous value, as accessed with
           * the memory semantics of getVolatile.
           *
           */
          public final native
          @MethodHandle.PolymorphicSignature
          Object getAndSet(Object... args);
      
          /**
           * Atomically adds the given value to the current value with the
           * memory semantics of setVolatile, and returns the previous
           * value, as accessed with the memory semantics of getVolatile.    
           *
           */
          public final native
          @MethodHandle.PolymorphicSignature
          Object getAndAdd(Object... args);
      
          /**
           * Atomically adds the given value to the current value with the
           * memory semantics of setVolatile, and returns the new value,
           * as accessed with the memory semantics of getVolatile.
           *
           */
          public final native
          @MethodHandle.PolymorphicSignature
          Object addAndGet(Object... args);
      }    

      The set of access modes represents a minimal viable set and are designed to be compatible with C/C++11 atomics without depending on a revised update to the Java Memory Model. Additional access modes will be added if required. Some access modes may not be applicable for certain variable types and, if so, when invoked on an associated VarHandle instance will throw an UnsupportedOperationException.

      The signature-polymorphic characteristic of the access mode methods enables variable handles to support many variable kinds and variable types using just one abstract class. This avoids an explosion of variable kind and type-specific classes. Furthermore, even though the access mode method signatures are declared as a variable argument array of Object, such signature-polymorphic characteristics ensure there will be no boxing of primitive value arguments and no packing of arguments into an array. This enables predictable behaviour and performance at runtime for the HotSpot interpreter and C1/C2 compilers.

      Methods to create VarHandle instances are located in the same area as that to produce MethodHandle instances which access equivalent or similar variable kinds.

      Methods to create VarHandle instances for instance and static field variable kinds are located in java.lang.invoke.MethodHandles.Lookup and are created by a process of looking up the field within the associated receiving class. For example, such lookup to obtain a VarHandle for a field named i of type int on a receiver class Foo might be performed as follows:

      class Foo {
          int i;
      
          ...
      }
      
      ...
      
      class Bar {
          static final VarHandle VH_FOO_FIELD_I;
      
          static {
              try {
                  VH_FOO_FIELD_I = MethodHandles.lookup().
                      in(Foo.class).
                      findVarHandle(Foo.class, "i", int.class);
              } catch (Exception e) {
                  throw new Error(e);
              }
          }
      }

      The lookup of a VarHandle that accesses a field will, before producing and returning the VarHandle, perform the exact same access control checks (on behalf of the lookup class) as those performed by the lookup up of a MethodHandle that gives read and write access to that same field (see the find{,Static}{Getter,Setter} methods in the MethodHandles.Lookup class).

      Access mode methods will throw UnsupportedOperationException when invoked under the following conditions:

      • Write access mode methods for a VarHandle to a final field.

      • All access mode methods other than that for relaxed, volatile, acquire and release access for field variable types boolean, byte, short, char, float and double.

      • Numeric-based access mode methods (getAndAdd and addAndGet) for a reference field variable type.

      A field need not be marked as volatile for an associated VarHandle to perform volatile access. In effect, the volatile modifier, if present, is ignored. This is different to the behaviour of java.util.concurrent.atomic.Atomic{Int, Long, Reference}FieldUpdater where corresponding fields have to be marked as volatile. This can be too restrictive in certain cases where it is known certain volatile accesses are not always required.

      Methods to create VarHandle instances for array-based variable types are located in java.lang.invoke.MethodHandles (see the arrayElement{Getter, Setter} methods in the MethodHandles class). For example, a VarHandle to an array of int may be created as follows:

      VarHandle intArrayHandle = MethodHandles.arrayElementVarHandle(int[].class);

      Access mode methods will throw UnsupportedOperationException when invoked under the following conditions:

      • All access mode methods other than that for relaxed, volatile, acquire and release access for array component variable types boolean, byte, short, char, float and double.

      • Numeric-based access mode methods (getAndAdd and addAndGet) for an array component reference variable type.

      All primitive types and references types are supported for the variable type of variable kinds that are instance fields, static fields and array elements. Other variable kinds may support all or a subset of those types.

      Methods to create VarHandle instances for array-view-based variable types are also located in java.lang.invoke.MethodHandles. For example, a VarHandle to view an array of byte as an unaligned array of long may be created as follows:

      VarHandle longArrayViewHandle = MethodHandles.byteArrayViewVarHandle(
              long[].class, java.nio.ByteOrder.BIG_ENDIAN);

      Although similar mechanisms can be achieved using java.nio.ByteBuffer, it requires that a ByteBuffer instance be created wrapping a byte array. This does not always guarantee reliable performance due to the fragility of escape-analysis and that accesses have to go through the ByteBuffer instance. In the case of unaligned access all but the relaxed access mode methods will throw IllegalStateException. For aligned access certain volatile operations, depending on the variable type are possible. Such VarHandle instances may be utilized to vectorize array access.

      The number of arguments, the argument types, and return type of access mode methods are governed by variable kind, the variable type and the characteristics of the access mode. VarHandle creation methods (such as those previously described) will document the requirements. For example, a compareAndSet on the previously-looked up VH_FOO_FIELD_I handle requires 3 arguments, an instance of receiver Foo and two ints for the expected and actual values:

      Foo f = ...
      boolean r = VH_FOO_FIELD_I.compareAndSet(f, 0, 1);

      In contrast, a getAndSet requires 2 arguments, an instance of receiver Foo and one int that is the value to be set:

      int o = (int) VH_FOO_FIELD_I.getAndSet(f, 2);

      Access to array elements will require an additional argument, of type int, between the receiver and value arguments (if any), that corresponds to the array index of the element to be operated upon.

      For predictable behaviour and performance at runtime VarHandle instances should be held in static final fields (as required for instances of Atomic{Int, Long, Reference}FieldUpdater). This ensures that constant folding will occur for access mode method invocations, such as folding away method signature checks and/or argument cast checks.

      Note: Future HotSpot enhancements might support constant folding for VarHandle, or MethodHandle, instances held in non-static final fields, method arguments, or local variables.

      A MethodHandle may be produced for a VarHandle access mode method by using MethodHandles.Lookup.findVirtual. For example, to produce a MethodHandle to the "compareAndSet" access mode for a particular variable kind and type:

      Foo f = ...
      MethodHandle mhToVhCompareAndSet = MethodHandles.publicLookup().findVirtual(
              VarHandle.class,
              "compareAndSet",
              MethodType.methodType(boolean.class, Foo.class, int.class, int.class));

      The MethodHandle can then be invoked with a variable kind and type compatible VarHandle instance as the first parameter:

      mhToVhCompareAndSet.invokeExact(VH_FOO_FIELD_I, f, 0, 1);

      Or mhToVhCompareAndSet can be bound to the VarHandle instance and then invoked:

      MethodHandle mhToBoundVhCompareAndSet = mhToVhCompareAndSet
              .bindTo(VH_FOO_FIELD_I);
      mhToBoundVhCompareAndSet.invokeExact(f, 0, 1);

      Such a MethodHandle lookup using findVirtual will perform an asType transformation to adjust arguments and return values. The behaviour is equivalent to a MethodHandle produced using MethodHandles.varHandleInvoker, the analog of MethodHandles.invoker`:

      MethodHandle mhToVhCompareAndSet = MethodHandles.varHandleExactInvoker(
              VarHandle.AccessMode.COMPARE_AND_SET,
              MethodType.methodType(boolean.class, Foo.class, int.class, int.class));
      
      mhToVhCompareAndSet.invokeExact(VH_FOO_FIELD_I, f, 0, 1);

      Thus a VarHandle may be used in erased or reflective scenarios by a wrapping class, for example replacing the Unsafe usages within the java.util.concurrent.Atomic*FieldUpdater/Atomic*Array classes.

      The source compilation of an access mode method invocation will follow the same rules as for signature-polymorphic method invocation to MethodHandle.invokeExact and MethodHandle.invoke. The following additions will be required to the Java Language Specification:

      1. Make reference to the signature-polymorphic access mode methods in the VarHandle class.
      2. Allow signature-polymorphic methods to return types other than Object, indicating that the return type is not polymorphic (and would otherwise be declared via a cast at the call site). This makes it easier invoke write-based access methods that return void and invoke compareAndSet that returns a boolean value.

      It would be desirable, but not a requirement, that source compilation of a signature-polymorphic method invocation be enhanced to perform target typing of the polymorphic return type such that an explicit cast is not required.

      Note: a syntax and runtime support for looking up a MethodHandle or a VarHandle leveraging the syntax of method references, such as VarHandle VH_FOO_FIELD_I = Foo::i is desirable but not in scope for this JEP.

      The runtime invocation of an access mode method invocation will follow similar rules as for signature-polymorphic method invocation to MethodHandle.invokeExact and MethodHandle.invoke. The following additions will be required to the Java Virtual Machine Specification:

      1. Make reference to the signature-polymorphic access mode methods in the VarHandle class.
      2. Specify invokevirtual byte code behaviour of invocation to access mode signature-polymorphic methods. It is anticipated that such behaviour can be specified by defining a transformation from the access mode method invocation to a MethodHandle which is then invoked using invokeExact with the same parameters (see previous use of MethodHandles.Lookup.findVirtual).

      It is important that the VarHandle implementations for the supported variable kinds, types and access modes are reliably efficient and meet the performance goals. Leveraging signature-polymorphic methods helps in terms of avoiding boxing and array packing. Implementations will:

      • Reside in the java.lang.invoke package where HotSpot treats final fields of classes in that package as really final, which enables constant folding when the VarHandle itself is referenced in a static final field;

      • Leverage the JDK internal annotations @Stable for constant folding of values that change only once, and @ForceInline to ensure methods get inlined even if normal inlining thresholds are reached; and

      • Use sun.misc.Unsafe for underlying enhanced volatile access.

      A couple of HotSpot intrinsics are necessary, some of which are enumerated as folllows:

      • An intrinsic for Class.cast, which has already been added (see JDK-8054492). Before this intrinsic was added a constant folded Class.cast would leave behind redundant checks that may cause unnecessary de-optimizations.
      • An intrinsic for an acquire-get access mode that can synchronize with an intrinsic for a set-release access mode (see sun.misc.Unsafe.putOrdered{Int, Long, Object}) when concurrently accessing variables.

      • Intrinsics for array bounds checks JDK-8042997. Static methods can be added java.util.Arrays that perform such checks and accept a function that is invoked to return an exception to be thrown or string message, to be included in an exception to be thrown, if the check fails. Such intrinsics enable better comparisons using unsigned values (since an array length is always positive) and better hoisting of range checks outside of unrolled loops over the array elements.

      In addition further improvements to range checks by HotSpot have been implemented (JDK-8073480) or are needed (JDK-8003585 to strength reduce range checks in say the fork/join framework or in say HashMap or ConcurrentHashMap). The VarHandle implementations should have minimal dependencies on other classes within the java.lang.invoke package to avoid increasing startup time and to avoid cyclic dependencies occurring during static initialization. For example, ConcurrentHashMap is used by such classes and if ConcurrentHashMap is modified to use VarHandles it needs to be ensured no cyclic dependencies are introduced. Furthermore, it is desirable that the C2 HotSpot compilation time is not unduly increased for methods containing VarHandle method invocations.

      Memory fences

      Fenced operations are defined as static methods on the VarHandle class and represents a minimal viable set for fine grained control of memory ordering.

         /**
          * Ensures that loads and stores before the fence will not be
          * reordered with loads and stores after the fence.
          *
          * @apiNote Ignoring the many semantic differences from C and
          * C++, this method has memory ordering effects compatible with
          * atomic_thread_fence(memory_order_seq_cst)
          */
         public static void fullFence() {}
      
         /**
          * Ensures that loads before the fence will not be reordered with
          * loads and stores after the fence.
          *
          * @apiNote Ignoring the many semantic differences from C and
          * C++, this method has memory ordering effects compatible with
          * atomic_thread_fence(memory_order_acquire)
          */
         public static void acquireFence() {}
      
         /**
          * Ensures that loads and stores before the fence will not be
          * reordered with stores after the fence.
          *
          * @apiNote Ignoring the many semantic differences from C and
          * C++, this method has memory ordering effects compatible with
          * atomic_thread_fence(memory_order_release)
          */
         public static void releaseFence() {}
      
         /**
          * Ensures that loads before the fence will not be reordered with
          * loads after the fence.
          */
         public static void loadLoadFence() {}
      
         /**
          * Ensures that stores before the fence will not be reordered with
          * stores after the fence.
          */
         public static void storeStoreFence() {}

      A full fence is stronger (in terms of ordering guarantees) than an acquire fence which is stronger than a load load fence. Likewise a full fence is stronger than a release fence which is stronger than a store store fence.

      Reachability fence

      The reachability fence is defined as a static method on java.lang.ref.Reference:

      class java.lang.ref.Reference {
         // add:
      
         /**
          * Ensures that the object referenced by the given reference
          * remains <em>strongly reachable</em> (as defined in the {@link
          * java.lang.ref} package documentation), regardless of any prior
          * actions of the program that might otherwise cause the object to
          * become unreachable; thus, the referenced object is not
          * reclaimable by garbage collection at least until after the
          * invocation of this method. Invocation of this method does not
          * itself initiate garbage collection or finalization.
          *
          * @param ref the reference. If null, this method has no effect.
          */
         public static void reachabilityFence(Object ref) {}
      
      }

      See JDK-8133348.

      It is currently out of scope to provide an annotation, @Finalized say, to be declared on a method, which at either compile or runtime results in as if the method body was wrapped as follows:

      try {
          <method body>
      } finally {
          Reference.reachabilityFence(this);
      }

      It is anticipated that such functionality could be supported by a compile-time annotation processor.

      Alternatives

      Introducing new forms of "value type" were considered that support volatile operations. However, this would be inconsistent with properties of other types, and would also require more effort for programmers to use. Reliance upon java.util.concurrent.atomic FieldUpdaters was also considered, but their dynamic overhead and usage limitations make them unsuitable.

      Several other alternatives, including those based on field references, have been raised and dismissed as unworkable on syntactic, efficiency, and/or usability grounds over the many years that these issues have been discussed.

      Syntax enhancements were considered in a previous version of this JEP but were deemed too "magical", with the overloaded use of the volatile keyword scoping to floating interfaces, one for references and one for each supported primitive type.

      Generic types extending from VarHandle were considered in a previous version of this JEP but such an addition, with enhanced polymorphic signatures for generic types and special treatment of boxed type variables, was considered immature given a future Java release with value types and generics over primitives with JEP 218, and improved arrays with Arrays 2.0.

      An implementation-specific invokedynamic approach was also considered in a previous version of this JEP. This required that compiled method calls with and without invokedynamic were carefully aligned to be the same in terms of semantics. In addition the use of invokedynamic in core classes such as say ConcurrentHashMap will result in cyclic dependencies.

      Testing

      Stress tests will be developed using the jcstress harness.

      Risks and Assumptions

      A prototype implementation of VarHandle has been performance-tested with nano-benchmarks and fork/join benchmarks, where the fork/join library's use of sun.misc.Unsafe was replaced with VarHandle. No major performance issues have been observed so far, and the HotSpot compiler issues identified do not seem onerous (folding cast checks and improving array bounds checks). We are therefore confident of the feasibility of this approach. However, we expect that it will require more experimentation to ensure the compilation techniques are reliable in the performance-critical contexts where these constructs are most often needed.

      Dependences

      The classes in java.util.concurrent (and other areas identified in the JDK) will be migrated from sun.misc.Unsafe to VarHandle.

      This JEP does not depend on JEP 188: Java Memory Model Update.

        Issue Links

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          Hide
          mr Mark Reinhold added a comment -
          To move this to "Targeted" it really needs to be more definite. Please
          update text that discusses uncertainties or different possibilities
          (e.g., "the target solution may require ...", "two possible solutions
          to avoid ...", etc.) to describe what you actually plan to do.

          Now that the design has settled, perhaps it's also time to retitle this
          JEP to "Variable Handles".
          Show
          mr Mark Reinhold added a comment - To move this to "Targeted" it really needs to be more definite. Please update text that discusses uncertainties or different possibilities (e.g., "the target solution may require ...", "two possible solutions to avoid ...", etc.) to describe what you actually plan to do. Now that the design has settled, perhaps it's also time to retitle this JEP to "Variable Handles".
          Hide
          psandoz Paul Sandoz added a comment -
          I have updated to be precise about the current approach to the design and implementation. Title also updated.
          Show
          psandoz Paul Sandoz added a comment - I have updated to be precise about the current approach to the design and implementation. Title also updated.

            People

            • Assignee:
              psandoz Paul Sandoz
              Reporter:
              dl Doug Lea
              Owner:
              Paul Sandoz
              Reviewed By:
              Dave Dice, Paul Sandoz
              Endorsed By:
              Brian Goetz
            • Votes:
              0 Vote for this issue
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              17 Start watching this issue

              Dates

              • Due:
                Created:
                Updated:
                Integration Due: