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  1. JDK
  2. JDK-8163969

Cyclic interface initialization causes JVM crash

    Details

    • Subcomponent:
    • Introduced In Build:
      b13
    • Introduced In Version:
    • Resolved In Build:
      b140
    • CPU:
      generic
    • OS:
      generic

      Backports

        Description

        FULL PRODUCT VERSION :
        JRE version: Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (8.0_101-b13) (build 1.8.0_101-b13)

        FULL OS VERSION :
        Microsoft Windows [Version 6.1.7601]

        A DESCRIPTION OF THE PROBLEM :
        Cyclic Interface initialization with exceptions causes an reproducible core dump.

        Background Info: I'm a developer of the JaCoCo code coverage library. While preparing test cases for cyclic Interface initialization I encountered this issue and isolated a simple reproducer.

        THE PROBLEM WAS REPRODUCIBLE WITH -Xint FLAG: Yes

        THE PROBLEM WAS REPRODUCIBLE WITH -server FLAG: Yes

        STEPS TO FOLLOW TO REPRODUCE THE PROBLEM :
        Compile and start the source code below. Also available here: https://gist.github.com/marchof/c0ac04a2abb4b163bf410e8018a72cb7

        EXPECTED VERSUS ACTUAL BEHAVIOR :
        Expected

        Proper exception handling

        Actual

        JVM crash
        ERROR MESSAGES/STACK TRACES THAT OCCUR :
        #
        # A fatal error has been detected by the Java Runtime Environment:
        #
        # EXCEPTION_ACCESS_VIOLATION (0xc0000005) at pc=0x000000006fb01b55, pid=5184, tid=0x000000000000453c
        #
        # JRE version: Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (8.0_101-b13) (build 1.8.0_101-b13)
        # Java VM: Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (25.101-b13 mixed mode windows-amd64 compressed oops)
        # Problematic frame:
        # V [jvm.dll+0x201b55]
        #
        # Failed to write core dump. Minidumps are not enabled by default on client versions of Windows
        #
        # If you would like to submit a bug report, please visit:
        # http://bugreport.java.com/bugreport/crash.jsp
        #

        --------------- T H R E A D ---------------

        Current thread (0x00000000001ee800): JavaThread "main" [_thread_in_vm, id=17724, stack(0x0000000002050000,0x0000000002150000)]

        siginfo: ExceptionCode=0xc0000005, reading address 0x0000000000000000

        Registers:
        RAX=0x0000000000000000, RBX=0x00000000001ee800, RCX=0x0000000000000000, RDX=0x0000000000000000
        RSP=0x000000000214ede0, RBP=0x000000000214ee69, RSI=0x0000000000000005, RDI=0x00000000001ee800
        R8 =0x00000000001ee800, R9 =0x0000000060cd0000, R10=0x0000000000000000, R11=0x00000007c0060400
        R12=0x0000000000000000, R13=0x0000000018f80290, R14=0x000000000214f210, R15=0x00000000001ee800
        RIP=0x000000006fb01b55, EFLAGS=0x0000000000010202

        Top of Stack: (sp=0x000000000214ede0)
        0x000000000214ede0: 00000000001ee800 000000000214ee89
        0x000000000214edf0: 0000000000000000 00000000001ef6e8
        0x000000000214ee00: 0000000001dc2620 000000000214ee20
        0x000000000214ee10: 00000000001ee800 00000000001ee800
        0x000000000214ee20: 0000000781e27a58 0000000781e277d0
        0x000000000214ee30: 0000000000000000 0000000001d7c970
        0x000000000214ee40: 0000000001d7c9c0 0000000001d7cb50
        0x000000000214ee50: 0000000001d7b034 0000000001d7b050
        0x000000000214ee60: ffffffff00000004 000000006fa10101
        0x000000000214ee70: 00000000001ef2b0 000000000214ee20
        0x000000000214ee80: 000000000214ee68 0000000800000002
        0x000000000214ee90: 0000f9edefabc301 0000000000000041
        0x000000000214eea0: 0000f9edefabc952 00000000001ee800
        0x000000000214eeb0: 0000000000000005 00000000001ee800
        0x000000000214eec0: 0000000000000000 000000006fb3cdb0
        0x000000000214eed0: 0000000000000000 00000000001ee800

        Instructions: (pc=0x000000006fb01b55)
        0x000000006fb01b35: 8b 5c 24 30 48 83 c4 20 5f c3 cc 48 89 4c 24 08
        0x000000006fb01b45: 55 53 56 57 48 8d 6c 24 c1 48 81 ec c8 00 00 00
        0x000000006fb01b55: 48 8b 01 49 8b f0 0f b6 fa 48 8b 18 48 8b c3 83
        0x000000006fb01b65: e0 07 48 83 f8 05 0f 85 26 01 00 00 48 f7 c3 80


        Register to memory mapping:

        RAX=0x0000000000000000 is an unknown value
        RBX=0x00000000001ee800 is a thread
        RCX=0x0000000000000000 is an unknown value
        RDX=0x0000000000000000 is an unknown value
        RSP=0x000000000214ede0 is pointing into the stack for thread: 0x00000000001ee800
        RBP=0x000000000214ee69 is pointing into the stack for thread: 0x00000000001ee800
        RSI=0x0000000000000005 is an unknown value
        RDI=0x00000000001ee800 is a thread
        R8 =0x00000000001ee800 is a thread
        R9 =0x0000000060cd0000 is an unknown value
        R10=0x0000000000000000 is an unknown value
        R11=0x00000007c0060400 is pointing into metadata
        R12=0x0000000000000000 is an unknown value
        R13=0x0000000018f80290 is pointing into metadata
        R14=0x000000000214f210 is pointing into the stack for thread: 0x00000000001ee800
        R15=0x00000000001ee800 is a thread


        Stack: [0x0000000002050000,0x0000000002150000], sp=0x000000000214ede0, free space=1019k
        Native frames: (J=compiled Java code, j=interpreted, Vv=VM code, C=native code)
        V [jvm.dll+0x201b55]
        V [jvm.dll+0x23cdb0]
        V [jvm.dll+0x107fea]
        V [jvm.dll+0x10d227]
        V [jvm.dll+0x10d191]
        V [jvm.dll+0x114f23]
        V [jvm.dll+0x115115]
        V [jvm.dll+0xbb82d]
        C 0x0000000002445327

        Java frames: (J=compiled Java code, j=interpreted, Vv=VM code)
        j JvmCrash.main([Ljava/lang/String;)V+0
        v ~StubRoutines::call_stub

        --------------- P R O C E S S ---------------

        Java Threads: ( => current thread )
          0x000000001a9fa000 JavaThread "Service Thread" daemon [_thread_blocked, id=16376, stack(0x000000001b670000,0x000000001b770000)]
          0x000000001a97b000 JavaThread "C1 CompilerThread2" daemon [_thread_blocked, id=7620, stack(0x000000001b470000,0x000000001b570000)]
          0x000000001a979800 JavaThread "C2 CompilerThread1" daemon [_thread_blocked, id=12668, stack(0x000000001b280000,0x000000001b380000)]
          0x000000001a972800 JavaThread "C2 CompilerThread0" daemon [_thread_blocked, id=16892, stack(0x000000001b010000,0x000000001b110000)]
          0x0000000019578800 JavaThread "Attach Listener" daemon [_thread_blocked, id=3156, stack(0x000000001ada0000,0x000000001aea0000)]
          0x0000000019576000 JavaThread "Signal Dispatcher" daemon [_thread_blocked, id=13616, stack(0x000000001aee0000,0x000000001afe0000)]
          0x000000001955c000 JavaThread "Finalizer" daemon [_thread_blocked, id=14320, stack(0x000000001a780000,0x000000001a880000)]
          0x0000000019515000 JavaThread "Reference Handler" daemon [_thread_blocked, id=18104, stack(0x000000001a5f0000,0x000000001a6f0000)]
        =>0x00000000001ee800 JavaThread "main" [_thread_in_vm, id=17724, stack(0x0000000002050000,0x0000000002150000)]

        Other Threads:
          0x000000001950d000 VMThread [stack: 0x000000001a4a0000,0x000000001a5a0000] [id=14356]
          0x000000001aa18800 WatcherThread [stack: 0x000000001b780000,0x000000001b880000] [id=12656]

        VM state:not at safepoint (normal execution)

        VM Mutex/Monitor currently owned by a thread: None

        Heap:
         PSYoungGen total 56320K, used 4672K [0x0000000781a00000, 0x0000000785880000, 0x00000007c0000000)
          eden space 48640K, 9% used [0x0000000781a00000,0x0000000781e90080,0x0000000784980000)
          from space 7680K, 0% used [0x0000000785100000,0x0000000785100000,0x0000000785880000)
          to space 7680K, 0% used [0x0000000784980000,0x0000000784980000,0x0000000785100000)
         ParOldGen total 128512K, used 0K [0x0000000704e00000, 0x000000070cb80000, 0x0000000781a00000)
          object space 128512K, 0% used [0x0000000704e00000,0x0000000704e00000,0x000000070cb80000)
         Metaspace used 2814K, capacity 4488K, committed 4864K, reserved 1056768K
          class space used 309K, capacity 388K, committed 512K, reserved 1048576K

        Card table byte_map: [0x00000000117e0000,0x0000000011dc0000] byte_map_base: 0x000000000dfb9000

        Marking Bits: (ParMarkBitMap*) 0x000000007011a6d0
         Begin Bits: [0x0000000012810000, 0x00000000156d8000)
         End Bits: [0x00000000156d8000, 0x00000000185a0000)

        Polling page: 0x00000000001c0000

        CodeCache: size=245760Kb used=1235Kb max_used=1235Kb free=244524Kb
         bounds [0x0000000002420000, 0x0000000002690000, 0x0000000011420000]
         total_blobs=320 nmethods=85 adapters=148
         compilation: enabled

        Compilation events (10 events):
        Event: 0.515 Thread 0x000000001a97b000 nmethod 78 0x000000000254e8d0 code [0x000000000254ea20, 0x000000000254eb50]
        Event: 0.515 Thread 0x000000001a97b000 79 3 java.util.BitSet::checkInvariants (111 bytes)
        Event: 0.515 Thread 0x000000001a97b000 nmethod 79 0x000000000254ebd0 code [0x000000000254ed20, 0x000000000254eeb0]
        Event: 0.516 Thread 0x000000001a97b000 80 3 java.lang.String::substring (79 bytes)
        Event: 0.516 Thread 0x000000001a97b000 nmethod 80 0x000000000254ef10 code [0x000000000254f0c0, 0x000000000254f578]
        Event: 0.516 Thread 0x000000001a97b000 81 3 java.lang.String::endsWith (17 bytes)
        Event: 0.517 Thread 0x000000001a97b000 nmethod 81 0x000000000254f790 code [0x000000000254f900, 0x000000000254fb28]
        Event: 0.517 Thread 0x000000001a97b000 82 1 java.net.URL::getPort (5 bytes)
        Event: 0.517 Thread 0x000000001a97b000 nmethod 82 0x000000000254fc50 code [0x000000000254fda0, 0x000000000254feb0]
        Event: 0.518 Thread 0x000000001a97b000 84 s! 3 sun.misc.URLClassPath::getLoader (197 bytes)

        GC Heap History (0 events):
        No events

        Deoptimization events (0 events):
        No events

        Internal exceptions (8 events):
        Event: 0.257 Thread 0x00000000001ee800 Exception <a 'java/lang/NoSuchMethodError': Method sun.misc.Unsafe.defineClass(Ljava/lang/String;[BII)Ljava/lang/Class; name or signature does not match> (0x0000000781a07cc0) thrown at [C:\re\workspace\8-2-build-windows-amd64-cygwin\jdk8u101\7261\hotspot\s�2o�!m�?
        Event: 0.257 Thread 0x00000000001ee800 Exception <a 'java/lang/NoSuchMethodError': Method sun.misc.Unsafe.prefetchRead(Ljava/lang/Object;J)V name or signature does not match> (0x0000000781a07fa8) thrown at [C:\re\workspace\8-2-build-windows-amd64-cygwin\jdk8u101\7261\hotspot\src\share\vm\prims\T�"��1�?
        Event: 0.409 Thread 0x00000000001ee800 Exception <a 'java/util/zip/ZipException'> (0x0000000781a91950) thrown at [C:\re\workspace\8-2-build-windows-amd64-cygwin\jdk8u101\7261\hotspot\src\share\vm\prims\jni.cpp, line 709]
        Event: 0.410 Thread 0x00000000001ee800 Exception <a 'java/security/PrivilegedActionException'> (0x0000000781a91bf0) thrown at [C:\re\workspace\8-2-build-windows-amd64-cygwin\jdk8u101\7261\hotspot\src\share\vm\prims\jvm.cpp, line 1386]
        Event: 0.410 Thread 0x00000000001ee800 Exception <a 'java/security/PrivilegedActionException'> (0x0000000781a91e00) thrown at [C:\re\workspace\8-2-build-windows-amd64-cygwin\jdk8u101\7261\hotspot\src\share\vm\prims\jvm.cpp, line 1386]
        Event: 0.434 Thread 0x00000000001ee800 Exception <a 'java/security/PrivilegedActionException'> (0x0000000781aae248) thrown at [C:\re\workspace\8-2-build-windows-amd64-cygwin\jdk8u101\7261\hotspot\src\share\vm\prims\jvm.cpp, line 1386]
        Event: 0.434 Thread 0x00000000001ee800 Exception <a 'java/security/PrivilegedActionException'> (0x0000000781aae458) thrown at [C:\re\workspace\8-2-build-windows-amd64-cygwin\jdk8u101\7261\hotspot\src\share\vm\prims\jvm.cpp, line 1386]
        Event: 0.520 Thread 0x00000000001ee800 Exception <a 'java/lang/ExceptionInInitializerError'> (0x0000000781e27a58) thrown at [C:\re\workspace\8-2-build-windows-amd64-cygwin\jdk8u101\7261\hotspot\src\share\vm\oops\instanceKlass.cpp, line 969]

        Events (10 events):
        Event: 0.509 loading class JvmCrash$1
        Event: 0.509 loading class JvmCrash$1 done
        Event: 0.511 loading class JvmCrash$Target
        Event: 0.511 loading class JvmCrash$Target done
        Event: 0.514 loading class JvmCrash$Base
        Event: 0.514 loading class JvmCrash$Base done
        Event: 0.517 loading class JvmCrash$Base$1
        Event: 0.517 loading class JvmCrash$Base$1 done
        Event: 0.519 loading class java/lang/ExceptionInInitializerError
        Event: 0.520 loading class java/lang/ExceptionInInitializerError done


        Dynamic libraries:
        0x000000013f040000 - 0x000000013f077000 C:\devtools\jdk1.8.0_101\bin\javaw.exe
        0x0000000077b00000 - 0x0000000077caa000 C:\Windows\SYSTEM32\ntdll.dll
        0x00000000779e0000 - 0x0000000077aff000 C:\Windows\system32\kernel32.dll
        0x000007fefd8a0000 - 0x000007fefd90a000 C:\Windows\system32\KERNELBASE.dll
        0x000007fefef60000 - 0x000007feff03b000 C:\Windows\system32\ADVAPI32.dll
        0x000007feff680000 - 0x000007feff71f000 C:\Windows\system32\msvcrt.dll
        0x000007feff720000 - 0x000007feff73f000 C:\Windows\SYSTEM32\sechost.dll
        0x000007fefeba0000 - 0x000007fefeccd000 C:\Windows\system32\RPCRT4.dll
        0x00000000778e0000 - 0x00000000779da000 C:\Windows\system32\USER32.dll
        0x000007feff040000 - 0x000007feff0a7000 C:\Windows\system32\GDI32.dll
        0x000007fefeb30000 - 0x000007fefeb3e000 C:\Windows\system32\LPK.dll
        0x000007feff2e0000 - 0x000007feff3aa000 C:\Windows\system32\USP10.dll
        0x000007fefbed0000 - 0x000007fefc0c4000 C:\Windows\WinSxS\amd64_microsoft.windows.common-controls_6595b64144ccf1df_6.0.7601.18837_none_fa3b1e3d17594757\COMCTL32.dll
        0x000007feff8b0000 - 0x000007feff921000 C:\Windows\system32\SHLWAPI.dll
        0x000007fefeb40000 - 0x000007fefeb6e000 C:\Windows\system32\IMM32.DLL
        0x000007feff740000 - 0x000007feff849000 C:\Windows\system32\MSCTF.dll
        0x0000000060cd0000 - 0x0000000060da2000 C:\devtools\jdk1.8.0_101\jre\bin\msvcr100.dll
        0x000000006f900000 - 0x000000007019a000 C:\devtools\jdk1.8.0_101\jre\bin\server\jvm.dll
        0x000007fef7e60000 - 0x000007fef7e69000 C:\Windows\system32\WSOCK32.dll
        0x000007feff0b0000 - 0x000007feff0fd000 C:\Windows\system32\WS2_32.dll
        0x000007fefeb90000 - 0x000007fefeb98000 C:\Windows\system32\NSI.dll
        0x000007fef9570000 - 0x000007fef95ab000 C:\Windows\system32\WINMM.dll
        0x000007fefc960000 - 0x000007fefc96c000 C:\Windows\system32\VERSION.dll
        0x0000000077cc0000 - 0x0000000077cc7000 C:\Windows\system32\PSAPI.DLL
        0x000000006f0e0000 - 0x000000006f0ef000 C:\devtools\jdk1.8.0_101\jre\bin\verify.dll
        0x0000000069e90000 - 0x0000000069eb9000 C:\devtools\jdk1.8.0_101\jre\bin\java.dll
        0x000000006e820000 - 0x000000006e836000 C:\devtools\jdk1.8.0_101\jre\bin\zip.dll
        0x000007fefdc40000 - 0x000007fefe9ca000 C:\Windows\system32\SHELL32.dll
        0x000007feffc00000 - 0x000007feffe03000 C:\Windows\system32\ole32.dll
        0x000007fefd880000 - 0x000007fefd88f000 C:\Windows\system32\profapi.dll
        0x000007fef2b60000 - 0x000007fef2c85000 C:\Windows\system32\dbghelp.dll

        VM Arguments:
        jvm_args: -Dfile.encoding=UTF-8
        java_command: JvmCrash
        java_class_path (initial): D:\sbbdev\eclipse-ws-rcs-trunk\.metadata\.plugins\org.eclipse.pde.core\.bundle_pool\plugins\org.slf4j_1.7.7.201606010400\jars\slf4j-log4j12-1.7.7.jar;D:\sbbdev\eclipse-ws-rcs-trunk\.metadata\.plugins\org.eclipse.pde.core\.bundle_pool\plugins\org.slf4j_1.7.7.201606010400\jars\slf4j-api-1.7.7.jar;D:\sbbdev\eclipse-ws-rcs-trunk\.metadata\.plugins\org.eclipse.pde.core\.bundle_pool\plugins\org.slf4j_1.7.7.201606010400\jars\jul-to-slf4j-1.7.7.jar;D:\sbbdev\eclipse-ws-rcs-trunk\.metadata\.plugins\org.eclipse.pde.core\.bundle_pool\plugins\org.apache.commons.configuration_1.9.0.201606010400\jars\commons-configuration-1.9.jar;D:\sbbdev\eclipse-ws-rcs-trunk\.metadata\.plugins\org.eclipse.pde.core\.bundle_pool\plugins\org.apache.commons.lang_2.6.0.201606010400\jars\commons-lang-2.6.jar;D:\sbbdev\eclipse-ws-rcs-trunk\.metadata\.plugins\org.eclipse.pde.core\.bundle_pool\plugins\org.mozilla.javascript_1.6.5.201606010400\jars\js-1.6R5.jar;D:\sbbdev\eclipse-ws-rcs-trunk\.metadata\.plugins\org.eclipse.pde.core\.bundle_pool\plugins\org.joda.time_1.6.2.201606010400\jars\joda-time-1.6.2.jar;D:\sbbdev\eclipse-ws-rcs-trunk\.metadata\.plugins\org.eclipse.pde.core\.bundle_pool\plugins\com.tibco.tibrv_8.4.2.201606010400\jars\tibrvnative-8.4.2.jar;D:\sbbdev\eclipse-ws-rcs-trunk\.metadata\.plugins\org.eclipse.pde.core\.bundle_pool\plugins\org.apache.log4j_1.2.17.201606010400\jars\log4j-1.2.17.jar;D:\sbbdev\eclipse-ws-rcs-trunk\.metadata\.plugins\org.eclipse.pde.core\.bundle_pool\plugins\org.apache.commons.net_3.1.0.201606010400\jars\commons-net-3.1.jar;D:\sbbdev\eclipse-ws-rcs-trunk\.metadata\.plugins\org.eclipse.pde.core\.bundle_pool\plugins\org.eclipse.osgi_3.8.2.v20130124-134944.jar;D:\sbbdev\eclipse-ws-rcs-trunk\.metadata\.plugins\org.eclipse.pde.core\.bundle_pool\plugins\org.apache.commons.collections_3.2.2.201606010400\jars\commons-collections-3.2.2.jar;D:\sbbdev\eclipse-ws-rcs-trunk\RCS_D_COMMON\bin;D:\sbbdev\eclipse-ws-rcs-trunk\ch.sbb.rcsd.transfer.common\
        Launcher Type: SUN_STANDARD

        Environment Variables:
        PATH=C:/Program Files/Java/jre1.8.0_65/bin/server;C:/Program Files/Java/jre1.8.0_65/bin;C:/Program Files/Java/jre1.8.0_65/lib/amd64;C:\Program Files\tibco\tibrv\8.4\bin;C:\Program Files\tibco\tibrv\8.4\bin;C:\ProgramData\Oracle\Java\javapath;C:\devtools\oracle\client-11.2.0;C:\Windows\system32;C:\Windows;C:\Windows\System32\Wbem;C:\Windows\AutoInst\Tools;C:\Program Files (x86)\Intel\OpenCL SDK\3.0\bin\x86;C:\Program Files (x86)\Intel\OpenCL SDK\3.0\bin\x64;C:\Program Files\Intel\WiFi\bin\;C:\Program Files\Common Files\Intel\WirelessCommon\;C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Application Virtualization Client;C:\Program Files\TortoiseSVN\bin;C:\devtools\jdk1.7.0_55\jre\bin;C:\devtools\sliksvn-1.8.8\bin;C:\devtools\oracle\product\11.2.0\client_1\bin;C:\Windows\System32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\;C:\Windows\System32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\;C:\Program Files (x86)\OpenText\Viewer\bin;C:\devtools\nodejs-4.2.6\;C:\Users\ue30465\.babun;c:\devtools\babun\.babun;C:\Users\ue30465\AppData\Roaming\npm;C:\devtools\rcspaeckli-201603041401;
        USERNAME=ue30465
        OS=Windows_NT
        PROCESSOR_IDENTIFIER=Intel64 Family 6 Model 69 Stepping 1, GenuineIntel



        --------------- S Y S T E M ---------------

        OS: Windows 7 , 64 bit Build 7601 (6.1.7601.23392)

        CPU:total 4 (2 cores per cpu, 2 threads per core) family 6 model 69 stepping 1, cmov, cx8, fxsr, mmx, sse, sse2, sse3, ssse3, sse4.1, sse4.2, popcnt, avx, avx2, aes, clmul, erms, rtm, lzcnt, ht, tsc, tscinvbit, bmi1, bmi2

        Memory: 4k page, physical 12262924k(5171508k free), swap 24523992k(16816712k free)

        vm_info: Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (25.101-b13) for windows-amd64 JRE (1.8.0_101-b13), built on Jun 22 2016 01:21:29 by "java_re" with MS VC++ 10.0 (VS2010)

        time: Fri Aug 12 14:03:06 2016
        elapsed time: 0 seconds (0d 0h 0m 0s)



        REPRODUCIBILITY :
        This bug can be reproduced always.

        ---------- BEGIN SOURCE ----------
        /**
         * This snippet crashes with
         * - Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (8.0_101-b13) (build 1.8.0_101-b13)
         */
        public class JvmCrash {

        interface Base {
        static final Object CONST = new Target(){}.someMethod();

        default void important() {
        // Super interfaces with default methods get initialized (JLS 12.4.1)
        }
        }

        interface Target extends Base {
        default Object someMethod() {
        throw new RuntimeException();
        }
        }

        public static void main(String[] args) {
        new Target() {};
        }

        }

        ---------- END SOURCE ----------

        CUSTOMER SUBMITTED WORKAROUND :
        Don't test wired corner cases ;-)

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                • Assignee:
                  coleenp Coleen Phillimore
                  Reporter:
                  webbuggrp Webbug Group
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                  Dates

                  • Due:
                    Created:
                    Updated:
                    Resolved: